2017年10月2日 星期一

用電需量控制


導入需量控制最重要的步驟即是建立用電管理系統,經由長期的用電資料收集,分析其用電需求分析,建立長期用電資料,透過PDCA循環持續了解用電趨勢後,研擬下一階段能源策略。

在105年度的第一期計畫,也是將用電需量監控訂為最優先發展,依據本校用電度數統計(以101年為基期),105年度用電度數55,545,340度,用電降幅已達5.81%。配合「政府機關及學校節約能源行動計畫」,以104年為基期,未來於106-108年度,期能達到7%-23%節電幅度。

為監控本校用電量進而達到節能減碳,校園電力監控系統規劃主要目標為:調整契約容量合理化,降低用電量並強化設備使用效率及有效用電行政管理,調整功率因數合理化以減少電費支出,監控尖峰最高需量,讓動力設備及各大樓空調設備運轉管理合理化。iEN用電管理系統上線後,本校將持續利用歷史記錄資訊做節能運轉分析之依據,透過統計分析,可將節能效益最大化。





整體來說,本校導入的iEN用電管理系統架構如下:
  • 導入開放式架構的智慧型節能管理系統
    支援各種不同耗能設備之介面與控制協定(如BACnet, LonWorks, Modbus等),可整合多種遠端控制器與感測器,透過網路連線取得相關設備運轉資訊,由後端系統進行節能診斷及設備控制管理,功能特色如表3所示。單一系統就能管控八大領域好能設備,包含電力、空調、照明、熱泵鍋爐、太陽能、節水、給排水、環境監控等。
  • 智慧用電管理的數位電錶及網路設備
    包含數位電錶、Modbus閘道器、LoRa傳輸介面。方便佈建網路的室內變壓站,建置數位電錶後,連結Modbus閘道器將資料傳輸至系統後台。不便佈建網路的戶外變壓站,建置數位電錶後,以低功率廣域無線網路LoRa傳輸至鄰近Modbus閘道器,將資料傳輸至系統後台。
  • 系統功能特色
    包含網頁式管理、即時狀態監控、排程控制、智慧化分析、客製化圖控介面。




系統上線後,持續觀測並與歷史記錄比較,像是即時監測各建築物EUI(Energy Use Intensity)指標趨勢圖,可以分析建築物之樓板面積單位時間平均耗電量(kWh/m2),反映建築物的耗能情況,管理人員可藉由數據的變化評估節能策略之效益。






另外,透過需量即時資訊,並根據不同電錶的契約與電價設定,管理人員將進行需量控制與用電規劃,據以制定需量合約電價、用電設備自動化復載/卸載規劃,以及依據用電設備負荷量施以自動卸載或復載,以確保需量不致逾越契約容量。


電量即時報表


電錶契約設定


電價設定


需量控制




系統可設定用電告警通知,透過事前設定的告警方式,即時通知管理人員適時處理,避免過去曾經發生超出契約容量而導致超額用電罰鍰,如此可有效將用電容量基本費率控制在合理範圍。








更進一步,透過分析各分電盤用電資訊,如空調、照明、動力、緊急用電等,判斷各項用電設備之用電百分比,確認其用電是否合理,針對用電不平衡與功因過低之問題,可立即著手進行改善,且在合理範圍內配合需量管理進行卸載。





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